What is a biological buffer? Why does it maintain the pH range?

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Biological buffer is a kind of solvent made by dissolving powder. After a small amount of acid or alkali is added, it can resist the change of pH value. There are dozens of biological buffers, each of which has different buffers. Intervals where small amounts of acid or base can be used to determine a specific pH within the buffer range while maintaining a nearly constant pH. So a biological buffer is actually a mixture of a weak acid or conjugate base and a weak base or conjugate acid.

Tris buffer

Biological buffers can be divided into three categories: acidic buffers, neutral buffers, and alkaline buffers. So how do biological buffers work?

A buffer adds any acid (H+ ion) or base (OH- ion) to neutralize it to maintain a moderate pH, making it a weak acid or base. Let's give you an example, a buffer composed of weak base ammonia NH3 and its conjugate acid NH4+ as an example, when HCl (strong acid) is added to the buffer system, the extra H+ ions added to the system will be consumed by NH3 , thus forming NH4+, the pH of the system does not change significantly since all the additional H+ ions are locked and the weaker acid NH4+ is formed. In the same way, if NaOH (strong base) is added to the buffer system, the ammonium ion donates a proton to the base, which becomes ammonia and water, thereby neutralizing the base, and the pH does not change significantly.

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