How can chemical reagents be effectively preserved for a long time
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1. Oil seal: Ammonia water, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated nitric acid and other volatile inorganic liquids, drop 10-20 drops of mineral oil on the liquid surface, can prevent volatilization (unavailable vegetable oil).
2. Water seal: add 5 ml water to carbon disulfide, it can be preserved for a long time. Water added to mercury prevents mercury vapor from entering the air. Put some sulfur powder beside mercury, but once it is lost, the sulfur powder is dispersed to eliminate the residual mercury in the chemical reaction.
3. Wax sealing: ether, ethanol, formic acid and other volatile liquids lighter than water or soluble, as well as naphthalene, iodine and other volatile solids, close bottle stoppers, wax at the mouth of the bottle. In addition to wax sealing of the original bottle, the original bottle should be placed in a plastic cylinder with activated carbon and wax sealing at the mouth of the cylinder.
1. Bleaching powder and sodium peroxide should be wax sealed to prevent water absorption decomposition or water absorption explosion. Sodium hydroxide is easy to absorb water and deliquescence, so it should be sealed in wax. Ammonium nitrate and sodium sulfate are easy to absorb water and form cakes, and can not pour out, so that reagent bottles should be sealed tightly.
2. Calcium carbide, anhydrous copper sulfate, phosphorus pentoxide and silica gel are easy to absorb water and deteriorate, red phosphorus is easy to be oxidized, and then absorb water to form metaphosphoric acid. All the above should be stored in a dryer.
3. Concentrated sulphuric acid should be sealed to prevent water absorption, but because it is commonly used, it is appropriate to put in the grinding bottle, the grinding bottle stopper should be matched with the original, do not adjust.
4. Drugs can be stored only in the basement of "Special Drugs". The lower layer is covered with lump ash, the middle layer is covered with ripe lime and the upper layer is covered with double tar paper.
3. Preventing deterioration:
1. Anti-oxidation: Sodium sulfite, ferrous sulfate, sodium thiosulfate are easy to be oxidized, the bottle mouth should be waxed.
2. Anti-carbonation: Sodium silicate, sodium peroxide and caustic alkali are easy to absorb carbon dioxide and should be waxed.
3. Weatherproof: Crystal sodium carbonate and crystal copper sulfate should be sealed in wax and stored in the basement.
4. Anti-decomposition: Ammonium bicarbonate and concentrated nitric acid are easy to decompose when heated and stored in basement after waxing.
5. Activated carbon can absorb many kinds of gases and deteriorate (charcoal is the same). It should be put in a dryer.
6. Yellow phosphorus is liable to spontaneous combustion when exposed to air. It is always stored in water. Water is checked every 15 days. Water is added to the phosphorus reagent bottle, placed in the water waste, and sealed with a bell jar.
Sodium preserved in kerosene
7. Potassium and sodium are preserved in kerosene.
8. Drop a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid in ferrous sulphate solution and add excessive fine iron powder for wax sealing.
9. Glucose solution is prone to mildew and can be preserved with a few drops of formaldehyde.
10. Formaldehyde is easy to polymerize. A small amount of methanol should be added immediately after opening the bottle, while ethanol should be added to acetaldehyde.
1. Silver nitrate, concentrated nitric acid and most organic drugs should be put in brown bottles.
2. Nitrate stored in the basement is not only heat-proof, but also light-proof, fire-proof and earthquake-proof.
3. All windows of organic reagents are painted with black paint.
4. Colored cloth curtains for laboratory use, double-layer black inner infrared.
Fifth, to prevent poisoning:
1. Severe poisons such as phosphorus, silver nitrate, potassium chlorate and mercury chloride are put into the basement, double-locked, archives are set up, approved, recorded and checked regularly.
2. Calcium phosphide and aluminium phosphide absorb water and release highly toxic phosphine, which should be stored in a dryer and labeled red.
3. Because there is no fume hood, lime is often laid on the ground to absorb some poisonous gaseous substances.
4. Drugs corroded by concentrated acid, alkali, bromine and phenol should be labeled red to warn.
6. Earthquake prevention:
1. Ammonium nitrate is easily exploded by vibration and put into basement.
2. Self-made large crystal alum and large crystal copper sulfate are packed in a soft paper pad to enlarge the reagent bottle, buffered and numbered according to "four digits" in the kitchen.
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