The biological function and application of malate dehydrogenase
Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) exists in all organisms and is one of the key enzymes in biological sugar metabolism. It can catalyze the reversible conversion between malate and oxaloacetate. MDH plays an important role in a variety of physiological activities of cells, including energy metabolism of mitochondria and reactive oxygen metabolism of plants. It has high theoretical research and economic utilization significance.
1. In agricultural production, MDH is used to improve the tolerance of plants to salt
Aluminum toxicity in acid soil is the main limiting factor for crop growth. Studies have found that in order to improve the absorption of phosphorus in the soil by plants, genetic engineering is used to carry out plant molecular improvement breeding. For example, after overexpression of the MDH gene in alfalfa, the absorption of organic acids by transgenic alfalfa can be enhanced, thereby improving the adaptation to acidic soil and dealing with aluminum. Tolerance of poison. However, when MDH is highly expressed, the increase in plant organic acid content can increase the osmotic pressure of the cell and can chelate and remove some ions, thereby improving the plant's salt tolerance.
2. Identify the purity of hybrids in tomato hybrids
In tomato F1 hybrids, electrophoresis is used to detect the differences between the MDH isozyme zymograms to identify the purity of the hybrids. This has become a new time-saving and labor-saving detection method in seed production, which is conducive to identifying high yield and disease resistance. Hybrids with adversity resistance advantages, which bring greater economic benefits to agricultural production.
3. As a diagnostic antigen in medicine
MDH has also attracted more and more attention in medicine. For example, the use of genetic engineering vaccines to prevent human tapeworm disease has been a research direction that has attracted much attention. Through bioinformatics analysis of the MDH gene of Taenia saginata Asian subspecies, it is predicted that Serous MDH is a potential diagnostic antigen, which provides important clues to the application prospects of tapeworms in diagnosis, medicine and vaccine research. Later experiments proved that it can obtain high-efficiency expression with immunological activity in the prokaryotic expression system, which laid the foundation for further research on the function of the protein. At the same time, the combined immunization of multiple recombinant vaccines in order to increase the protective effect of the vaccine has also become the main direction for the development of nematode vaccines in the future.
In short, MDH, as a key enzyme in the central metabolic pathway of organisms, have been studied extensively at home and abroad. At present, various MDHs isoenzymes are being used in the research of biological classification, species differentiation, genetic variation, species hybridization and ontogeny. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the physiological and biochemical properties, structure and function, and catalytic mechanism of MDH is of great significance for exploring the metabolism of MDH in organisms and the molecular pathogenesis of some diseases.
HEPES, as a zwitterionic buffer, increases the osmotic pressure of the cell culture system by increasing the concentration of solution ions, maintaining normal cell morphology and function, and improving cell survival rate. Widely used in cell culture, especially under specific conditions such as tumor cell culture, it is crucial to maintain cell growth and function.