Coenzymes, prosthetic groups and zymogens related to enzyme preparations

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In in vitro diagnosis, almost all biochemical reactions need to use enzyme preparations. Enzymes are special proteins with catalytic functions. In the use of enzymes and related research, we will often see coenzymes, prosthetic groups and zymogens. This article will briefly introduce them.


Structure of enzyme preparation

Enzymes can be divided into two categories: simple proteins and binding proteins. General hydrolase enzymes such as pepsin and ribonuclease are simple proteins and consist only of amino acids. Transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and other oxidoreductases are all bound proteins. In addition to protein components, they also contain heat-stable non-protein small molecules, which are called enzyme proteins and cofactors. Generally, only the two are combined to form a complete It is active only when the enzyme is full.

Coenzymes, prosthetic groups and zymogens related to enzyme preparations


The relationship between enzyme preparations and coenzymes

Coenzymes are cofactors of enzymes, which specifically refer to small organic molecules that are relatively loosely bound to the enzyme protein and can be removed by dialysis or ultrafiltration. In an enzymatic reaction, the coenzyme as a substrate accepts a proton or group and then leaves the enzyme protein, participates in another enzymatic reaction and transfers the proton or group it carries, or vice versa. For example, in enzyme colorimetric detection, NAD, NADP or FAD, these are common coenzymes, but also enzyme substrates.


The relationship between enzymes and prosthetic groups

The prosthetic group of the enzyme is also its cofactor (including metal ions). The prosthetic group is tightly bound to the enzyme protein (acoenzyme), and it is difficult to remove small organic molecules by dialysis or ultrafiltration. The prosthetic group is tightly bound to the enzyme protein and cannot be removed by dialysis or ultrafiltration. In the enzymatic reaction, the prosthetic group cannot leave the enzyme protein. About 2/3 of enzymes contain metal ions, which are also a prosthetic group. The most common metal ions are K+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+/Cu+, Zn2+, Fe2+/Fe3+, etc.


The relationship between enzyme and zymogen

Certain enzymes are only inactive precursors of enzymes when they are synthesized or initially secreted in cells. The precursor substances are called zymogens. The effect of turning zymogens into active enzymes is called zymogen activation, such as thrombin ( Promote blood coagulation) precursor prothrombin, digestive enzymes pepsinogen, trypsinogen, etc. Desheng has a wealth of experience in the field of in vitro diagnostics, and can provide a variety of enzyme preparations, enzyme color substrates, luminescent substrates, and biological buffers commonly used in biochemical testing.